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Sketchplanations tagged with psychology

Public commitment pledge
Public commitment pledge explanation - a soft commitment device shown by someone battling a desire to eat cookies with a public commitment
The Fundamental Attribution Error
The Fundamental Attribution Error illustration: a driver assuming someone is rude when they swerved in front of them rather than considering that they may have been running late and it been an accident - attributing character over context
The Barnum effect
The Barnum effect (also the Forer effect) illustrated by 3 people, each getting the same seemingly personalised personality test result and figuring it described them perfectly.
Self-serving bias
Self-serving bias illustration: two tennis players think on their contrasting fortunes, the winner proud of their athleticism (character), and the loser blaming the umpire (the situation).
The Droste effect
The Droste effect illustration: where the picture contains the picture which contains the picture which contains the picture...
Dark patterns
Dark patterns: using design to deceive, like hiding the 'I don't need insurance' option in the country list rather than as its own option
The isolation effect
The isolation effect: remembering better what stands out from a set of otherwise like items in a set. Also known as the Von Restorff effect
Attribution bias
A parent consoling a child and correcting their attribution of winning and losing to the situation and actions not to personal traits
Optimism bias
Optimism bias illustration: A stunt rider overestimates their chance of leaping a canyon thanks to optimism bias. Various onlookers gasp. "Huh" says the rider
Two people enjoying a dialogue, one falling asleep to a monologue, and one being distracted from their book by a halfalogue
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
The side of a pyramid of needs: physiological, safety, love-belonging, esteem, self-actualization
Extrinsic motivation
A sketch of extrinsic motivation with a donkey being followed by a man with a stick and in turn following a carrot that's strapped always just out of reach
Physics Envy
Physics envy: a football coach looks on exasperated as none of his young team play according to the plan
The Rhyme As Reason Effect
The Rhyme As Reason Effect illustration: whilst on a stroll, one friend shrewdly convinces the other about how aphorisms that rhyme tend to be more believable, by including a rhyme in their statement.
Context is king
Context is King illustration: the capital letters A, B and C are handwritten in sequence on the top row. On the bottom row, it's the numbers 12, 13 and 14 - again handwritten. When you look closely, you notice that the letter B and the number 13 take exactly the same form. It is only the characters that come before and after in each sequence that define them.
Languishing illustration: an unmotivated, apathetic figure sits slumped in an armchair with a TV remote in hand, clearly fed up and demoralised - for the time being at least.
Confirmation bias
Confirmation bias: people dressed in blue buy the blue newspapers at a newsstand while some reds are buying the red papers.
Fact tennis
Fact Tennis illustration: two individuals with tennis racquets knock unproductive, point-scoring arguments back and forth over a pile of laundry.
The Bystander Effect
The bystander effect: a lady sits dazed on the floor in a busy train station while others ignore her or walk on by — someone really ought to check she's ok
Flow from Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi - a state of total focus and joy: two climbers illustrate flow through clear goals, feedback and challenge matched to skills
Commitment device
Commitment device illustration: Odysseus asking his men to tie him to the mast so that he can resist the siren's song who are kind flying women
The Boaty McBoatface effect
The Boaty McBoatface effect: Someone holding up a poll for the naming of a boat which was vote-bombed to be Boaty McBoatface for a laugh
The overview effect
The overview effect illustration: 2 astronauts have a bit of a moment and need to sit down when taking in the majestic view of Earth from the moon and realise this is all we've got.
The 3-day effect
The 3 day effect: A hiker sets off up a mountain, as each day goes by, thinking less about the work they were doing before they came
Proportionality bias
Proportionality Bias illustration: a dice has landed on a six and the person who rolled it gave it a really good shake beforehand.
The Abilene paradox
The Abilene paradox: a family sets out on a trip to Abilene on a hot dusty day only to discover on the way back that none of them actually wanted to go
Imposter syndrome
Imposter Syndrome illustration: even as an appreciative audience applaud, an award recipient at the rostrum on stage questions whether they actually deserve this recognition.
The trust equation
The Trust Equation illustration: set out as a mathematical equation, we understand that the trust we have in someone professionally is proportional to how credible they are in their field, how dependable they are and how safe you feel around them. That trust is inversely proportional to how self-orientated they are.
The availability heuristic (and bias)
The Availability Heuristic illustration: Plane crashes, cold snaps, and winning lottery tickets are shown as examples of uncommon but widely reported events that might affect the significance we associate with them.
Dunbar’s number: 150
Dunbar's number: a person can't remember the name of the one person outside their circles of closer friends, super family, clan and tribe behind them
The Implicit Association Test
The Implicit Association Test illustration: using gender roles as an example, we are asked to sort Career words into a Men's column and Home/Family words into a Women's column. We are then asked to do the opposite. One's bias is calculated as the difference in time it takes to complete both tasks.
What drives us: autonomy, mastery, purpose
Autonomy Mastery Purpose summary of Dan Pink's book Drive
The spotlight effect
The Spotlight Effect illustration: two individuals greet one another, each illuminated by an intense spotlight as if on stage - and each secretly worry about how the other perceives their appearance.
The Effect Effect
The Effect Effect illustration: two colleagues are left in no doubt as to the veracity of research presented to them because it has been labelled as an "effect". Indeed, one heads straight off to tell their friends about it.
The misattribution of arousal
The Misattribution of Arousal illustration: a couple in the early stages of romance reflect on how excited they were to ride on a roller coaster together. Was the excitement due to each others' company or the roller coaster itself? Or maybe a bit of both?
Crossmodal perception
Crossmodal perception illustration showing that coffee tastes better when the machine is quiet and why plane food is less tasty
The Lucretius problem
The Lucretius Problem illustration: examples of the biggest occurrences in history, like a market crash, a volcano eruption, a long drought and a traffic delay tend to be perceived as the biggest there could ever be.
Gaslighting illustration: an individual making a speech at their lectern tells lie after lie after lie. As the lies keep coming an audience member starts to question their own, previously firm, understanding.
9-Enders (nine-enders)
9-enders (nine-enders) explanation: people approaching their 30s, 40s and 50s, examining their lives for meaning and setting off skydiving, running marathons and climbing Everest
Buyer’s remorse
Buyer's remorse illustration: a customer hands over cash to a car dealer seemingly very excited about their new purchase. At the wheel of their new car as they drive away, they begin to question their decision.
The singularity effect
The Singularity Effect illustration: a line graph shows how the value of and compassion for saving a life quickly diminishes as the number of lives at risk increases.
Emotional hot potato
Emotional hot potato illustration: a person is yelled at by their boss at work setting off a chain reaction of bad moods when they get home.  Coming though the front door, the worker yells at their partner, who yells at their kid, who yells at their sibling, who yells at the dog, who does a pee on the carpet and walks outside.
Psychic numbing
Psychic Numbing Illustration: A radio plays out the news headlines. The story about a young girl is met with empathy. Another story about thousands of people dying is met with apathy.
Johari window — a window of feedback and sharing
Johari window illustration: a 2 x 2 matrix of what's known to others plotted again what's known to oneself yields four possible scenarios.
Nominative determinism
Nominative determinism examples — or an aptronym — with 3 books and their nominatively deterministic authors
The peak-end rule
The Peak-end rule illustration: chart showing two experience lines, one with more downs that ends on a high that's remembered as better than the one that's more steady throughout
Stages of grief
Stages of grief - Sketchplanations
The prisoner’s dilemma
The prisoner’s dilemma - Sketchplanations
The nocebo effect
The nocebo effect - Sketchplanations
The placebo effect
The placebo effect - Sketchplanations
Mapping emotions
Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions: a colourful wheel showing how emotions mix
The IKEA effect
The IKEA effect: a person contemplates with affection their newly assembled, if slightly wobbly, table
Cognitive bias, heuristic, logical fallacy: hidden features of the mind
Cognitive bias, heuristic, logical fallacy: hidden features of the mind - Sketchplanations
Benefits to you from getting started
Benefits to you from getting started chart — put it off and stress about it = no benefit, start now with something = some benefit
Don’t make important decisions on an empty stomach
An energised person at 9 am closely contemplates a file while at noon they're down to 'whatever'
Prices written smaller seem more affordable
Prices written smaller seem more affordable - Sketchplanations
Stages of competence framework
A 2 x 2 grid for competence and consciousness showing the progression between them
The Lake Wobegon Effect
The Lake Wobegon Effect - Sketchplanations
Cognitive overhead
Cognitive overhead - Sketchplanations
Figure and ground
Figure and ground illustration: faces or a candlestick/vase
The Firehouse Effect
The Firehouse Effect - Sketchplanations
Core components of risk
Core components of risk - Sketchplanations
The Stroop test
The Stroop test - Sketchplanations
The Betty Crocker Effect
The Betty Crocker Effect - Sketchplanations
Sneaky casinos
Sneaky casinos - Sketchplanations
Sneaky cognitive biases: hindsight bias, loss aversion, recency bias
Sneaky cognitive biases: hindsight bias, loss aversion, recency bias - Sketchplanations
Anchoring - Sketchplanations
Hyperbolic discounting
Hyperbolic discounting - Sketchplanations
Present bias
Present bias - Sketchplanations
The moon illusion
The moon illusion - Sketchplanations
The expanding circle of attention
The expanding circle of attention - Sketchplanations
Fast and slow thinking
Fast and slow thinking - Sketchplanations
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs - Sketchplanations
The four pillars of too much
The four pillars of too much - Sketchplanations
Spend better
Spend better - Sketchplanations
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