From various sources I have learned that mandarins are the original, from China, and were rather fancy and therefore only suitable for high society, which included mandarins (bureaucrats).
Satsumas are a type of mandarin cultivated in the Japanese district of Satsuma.
Clementines are named after Father Clément Rodier who may have cultivated the variety himself.
And tangerines are so named as being from Tangiers in Morocco, one of the places where mandarins were first imported into Europe.
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